Arabic calligraphy is the art of beautiful writing using the letters of the Quran. Islamic calligraphy emerged between the 8th and 10th centuries, and later it continued to develop more artistically and under different rules.
The basis of Islamic calligraphy are the letters of the Quran . Since these letters are the word of Allah, they are subtle, elegant and unique. This situation has been a source of inspiration and enthusiasm for the calligraphers who practice it.
Islamic Arabic Calligraphy:
The calligrapher sits down to write, has complete physical and psychological control over the quill or pen, and writes his lines with sure strokes. It sometimes took years of practice to master this art .
The works of a master calligrapher were everywhere admired, preserved, considered precious and bought at exorbitant prices by collectors. Kufi calligraphy, which emerged in the 7th century as the writing of the Quran, is an angular style of writing and is the oldest known type of writing. It is named after the Iraqi city of Kufa.
The Kufic writing style quickly spread wherever Islam spread at this time and became a script accepted by everyone.
Inscriptions prepared in this way were then engraved on stone for buildings, embroidered in materials with knitting or embroidery as ornaments.
The Kufic style of writing retained its characteristic of being the writing of the Koran until the 12th century . However, later, with the spread of Islam to other countries and regions, new influences and directions came into play when the languages of these regions adopted the Quranic script and letters.
As long as the Quran was written on parchment, the Kufic script remained in place; However, after the 12th century, when paper was increasingly used, instead of Kufic calligraphy as the writing of the Quran, Neshi, Muhakkak and Reyhani, who adhered to the rules of Vizier Ibn-i Mukla, began to be used in the Quran.
In the 13th century, writing styles developed with the use of the Talik line in Iran and have come down to the present day. Many beautiful works have been created using Islamic calligraphy.
Arabic calligraphy styles:
Based on Islamic calligraphy, there are letters and the way these letters are written. There are basically six types of calligraphy: Kufi, Thuluth, Nesih, Rika, Reyhani and Tevki. These are called Aklam-i Sitte.
1- Kufi calligraphy:
All letters are angular. It is considered the oldest in Islamic calligraphy. It is a straight, hard and angular handwriting. It is named after the Iraqi city of Kufa.
2- Calligraphy of Thuluth:
Thuluth literally means one third. Letters written in Thuluth are written two-thirds and one-third round from the original letter. This calligraphy began to be written by the first vizier Ibn-i Mukla. This line has a soft look compared to the Reyhani line. In general, the thuluth style is common in mosques, caravanserais, tombstones, madrasa inscriptions, and ornamental plaques. When it comes to Arabic calligraphy, Thuluth calligraphy is widely used.
3- Naskh Calligraphy:
Neskh literally means to eliminate. It is believed that he received this name because he abolished the layout of other scripts, especially the Kufic line. This is the small form of Thuluth calligraphy. Quran-Karim Mushafs are usually written in Naskh.
4- Rika Calligraphy:
LaRika was mainly used by the Ottoman Turks.Rika is a line written in the thuluth style like the Tawki line, but adheres to its rules. It literally means "little page". It is the most widely used handwriting format. It can be written in series. The prayers at the end of the pages of the Quran are used in foundation works and icazetnames.
5- Reyhani Calligraphy:
The relationship between thuluth and naskh is found between Muhakkak and reyhani. The horizontal parts of the naskh script are more prone, longer, and since they are large, they could not fit against the naskh. It was used in writing the Quran.
6- Tawqi Calligraphy:
It's like the thuluth calligraphy rules, but written in a smaller or even sloppy way. When it comes to tawqi calligraphy, the most distinctive feature is that letters that don't combine can be connected to each other. Letters from caliphs and viziers were written in Tawki. Detention calligraphy was typically used in foundation work.